The Isinay is a group of people who occupied Nueva Viscaya and other municipalities like Dupax del Sur, Aritao, and Bambang. While the Spaniards entered to Cagayan Valley, their major economic activities were agriculture, fishing, and domestication of animals. And soon, the Isinay were reduced like the Isneg, the Itave, the Kalinga, the Ibanag, and the Gaddang who had been previously settled in ranchers or in larger pueblos. They produced taro, yam, rice and corn and their main economic activity is agriculture. They produced rice and vegetables and also cultivated sweet potato and cassava while poultry and piggery remained secondary occupation. They raised cattle and goat. They also manufactured wood and wood products, textile, wearing apparel, leather, food and beverage and tobacco.Parents were responsible for choosing spouses for thei children and they can betroth their children even before they were born and that practice is called "purung". This ritual is accompanied by a ritual attended by their parents, relatives, and friends. The christianized Isinay believed in life after death- the good souls go to heaven while the bad souls go to hell. Those who die without being baptized enter the dark purgatory, which they refer to as "kinto limbo" or fifth limbo.
"Ilongot" or "Ilungot" inhabits the forest of Nueva Viscaya. They are noted for their rice wine called basi, which they also like to consume. Their "bottles" are bamboo tubes. Later, the provincial government of Nueva Viscaya used education and pacification as tools for civilization. They fish with nets and traps; sometimes they dive to shoot larger fish with bow and arrow. They use kaingin system (swidden) for farming. The Ilongot men wear loin cloth held around the waist by a cagit or either a brass wire or rattan. Gabed, a piece of bark cloth is wrapped around the legs and tied at the font and back with a string belt. Ilongot women wear cloth embroidered skillfully and make cotton tassels which they tie on their horse hair ornament.
The Ivatan are the people of Batanes, a group of ten islands in the Northern most part of the Philippines and is the smallest province in the country. Ivatans settle only on these islands; Itbayat, the largest island in Batanes , Batan, the most populated where Basco, the capital lies and Sabtang, seven km. southwest of Batan. Ivatan is the language spoken in the islands of Batan and Sabtang while Initbayat language spoken mainly on the islands of Itbayat and other languages are spoken in Filipino, English and Ilocano. The Batanes islands were created by series of volcanic activity and other geologic changes. Eruptions of Mt. Iraya on Batan were responsible for the goelogic features and fertile soil of Batan Island. Ivatonic are faring people who lived by fishing, hunting, and cultivation of root crops, bananas, and sugarcane from which they produced Palik (fermented cane juice). Ivatan had Neolithic tools and pottery which they used as burail jars. The traditional Ivatan society was made up of form distinct classes: the Mangpus, Mapolon, Cailanes, and Slaves. Manpus and Mapolon are the elite group. Mangpus collect revenues and administered justice and led their people to war against another mountain people. Cailanes are those who cultivate the land and the Slaves, the lower in rank. Children showed respect for the authority of parents. Arrange marriages were traditional among the Ivatan.
Ibanag or a "people of the river" is a group of Spaniards landed in Northern Luzon in a place known as Buquey. Cagayan Valley got its name from the word Cagayan (river) but others claimed that the name was derived from the word tagay (a kind of plant that grew in abundance in the North). They engaged in agriculture, fishing and hunting as their means of subsistence. They cooked their foods in earthen pots and vessels made of clay. They also believed in spirits they called i ari nga urasingan. They sacrificed animals during their rituals to the patron saint. They also believed in Mangibariao, a curse or bad wish. Ibanag is also consider children as a gift from God and source of luck for the family and thos couples without children are unlucky and should be punished. Mamattang is a ritual made to eliminate pains during pregnancy. The manggagakao is a ritualto bring back the soul of a child who is shocked or scared. Mangagaya is the native term of courtship that usually starts at the age of 16. The Ibanag's main economic activity is planting with rice as the most dominant agricultural product in farmlands, and tobacco, as their commercial product. The head of traditional Ibanag community was called dakal na barangay and the leader must be a kin or karaga, as in the old datu system.
About my opinion about the story of Biuag at Malana, I believe that the supernatural powers that the goddess gave to Biuag was not deserve to him. He used his power in bad and not in good. But then, I liked the story about Biuag at Malana. That was very interesting. One thing that I didn' like in this story is that, it has no an happy ending. Iliked the whole story though it is unbelievable.
The story about the life of Cardo touched my heart. For me, this story has a lot of lessons that we should learn. This shows that even if you are ugly and look like a devil, you are still part of this world wherein God creates you. Cardo is not a bad person although he is ugly. And as long as he is a good person, he is still beautiful in the eyes of god. Because of this story, it made mme realize that that ugly person shoul not treat bad. It made me also asked to myself too, what was this beauty in life that others fight and die for, that what is in beauty that evrybody was desired. I realized also that you are beautiful as long as you are a good person. We have no right to judge people like Cardo because even if he is look ugly, he is a good person who has a good soul and golden heart which is the most important.